Hard water is the water that does not form lather readily with soap,it contains a number of dissolved salts, calcium tetraoxosulphate(vi), magnesium tetraoxosulphate(vi) and calcium hydrogentrioxocarbonate(iv)
(i)Temporary hardness water
(ii)Permanent hardness water
(a) presence of dissolved calcium hydrogentrioxocarbonate (iv) Ca(HCO3)2
(b) presence of calcium and magnesium ions in the form of soluble tetraoxosulphate(iv) and chlorides
-Advantages of hard water –
(i)it tastes better soft water because of the dissolved minerals in it.
(ii)The calcium salts present in hard water when taken in by animals help to build strong teeth and bones.
– Disadvantages of hard water –
(i)It requires a lot of soap before it can form a latter
(ii)It causes furring of kettles and boilers
Ion is any atons atom or group of atoms which posses an electric charge
Isotope is one or two or more species of atoms of chemical element with the same atomic number and position in the periodic table and nearly identical chemical behaviour but with different atomic masses and physical properties
Number of electrons=2n²
In M shell, n=3
:. 2n² = 2(3)²
(i) It has hard and brittle solid.
(ii) It readily dissolve in water.
(iii) It has high melting and boiling point.
Polymerisation is the process whereby two or monomers link together to form a compound of high molecular mass called polymer.
(i)Natural polymers; silk,wool,DNA,Cellulose
(ii)Artificial polymer; cellulose acetate, viscose rayon
Heavy chemical industry: It is a term that applies to such products as the common acids,soda,ash, caustic soda and those salts and other chemicals that are produced by an industry in large quantities and at relatively little cost
(i)Availability of raw materials
(iii)Regular power supply
-Raw materials for cement industry –
(iv)Marl combined with shale ,clay,slate,blast furnace slag, silica sand and iron ore
– Raw materials for soap industry –
Saponification: It is the hydrolysis of fats and oils with caustic alkali yields propane-1,2,3-triol and the corresponding sodium and potassium salts of the component fatty acids.These salts are the principal constitutes of soaps.
Plant matter, such as plantain skins,palm tree leaves, cocoa pods and Shea tree bark,is first sun -dried and then burned to produce Ash (which supplies the alkali required to convert or saponify the oils and fats). Next ,water and various oils and fats such as coconut oil,palm oil and shea butter are added to the ash. The mixture is cooked and hand-stirred for at least 24 hours. After the soap solidifies,it is scooped out and set out to cure.
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