Obligations of citizens refers to expectations of a citizen in a given society or duties of a citizens in a state,in return for most of the rights enjoyed. It also mean legal and moral responsibility of a citizen
(Choose Any Four)
(i)Payment of tax: A citizen should pay his tax to provide the state with revenue for social services eg pipe borne water,hospitals and schools
(ii)Obedience to law: A citizen should obey all the laws of the state for the common good of it’s citizen.
(iii)Voting during election: A citizen has to vote during elections. Failure to do so may lead to the election of the wrong people into public offices.
(iv)Detection and prevention of crimes: A good citizen should always assist the law enforcement agencies in detecting and preventing crimes in the society
(v)Loyalty: A good citizen must shoe loyalty to his country and must not support another country against his own country
(vi)National symbols: A good citizen should show respect for national symbols example Flag and anthem.
A drug addict is someone who is addicted to illegal drugs. It is also refer to a person who is addicted to a chemical substance, especially a narcotic.
(Choose Any four)
(i)Exhibition of Quarrelsome and rebellions disposition: Drug addict has quarrelsome and rebellions disposition. He quarrel at slightest provocation . He sees everybody and everything as a threat. Rebelliousness and quarrelsome become defensive mechanism.
(ii)Exhibition of Idleness : behavior exhibited by drug addict is idleness. They do not feel the need to work. They loiter about and often find solace in gambling. The little money they get is spent on smoking,drinking and gambling.
(iii)Exhibition of Criminal tendencies: Drug addicts exhibit criminal tendencies. They steal,rob,kidnap and rape. They are custodians and carriers of social vices. They involve in cultism and it’s activities
(iv)Exhibition of drug dependence: The drug abuser exhibit the behaviour of drug dependence. Drug dependence is a state in which continuous usage of drugs causes continued disruption or harm to one’s personal ,social or economic life
(v)Decency or modest in dressing: The person would not have value for decency or modest in dressing. He may look unkempt and buzzes in appearance. He carries bushy hair,wears shabby clothes and staggering movement displace. In fact , he appears to be semi mad person.
Supremacy of the law: This principle states that no one is above the law. The law of a state is always the final authority . No other institution,not even Parliament which assists in promulgating the law,can claim supremacy over the law.
Equality before the law: The principle state that law should apply equally to all citizens of a country ,irrespective of their economic or political status. All persons, regardless of race,colour ,sex,language,religion or social origin ,property,birth or other status are to be treated the same before the law.
Respect to Fundamental human right: Every human being is entitled to an exercise of fundamental rights and freedom and that when these rights are violated,citizens should have the right to seek redress from the court. Only the courts have the jurisdiction to entertain such cases.
(Choose Any Three)
(i)Diplomatic immunity: Diplomats cannot be prosecuted in the country where they are residing as accredited representative of their country.
(ii)Immunity of Heads of state: He may not be sued or appear in court . This privilege is not extended to the citizens and it is a limitation to the rule of law.
(iii)Immunity of the Parliament: The law makers are immune from every utterance,actions or statements made in Parliament.
(iv)Delayed justice: Justice delayed is agreed to be justice denied. The reasons are that some individuals have spent years in custody with their cases frequently postponed.
(v)state of Emergency: If a country is in crises or about to fight a war,state of emergency could be declared. Arbitrary rule may be enthroned and citizens may be denied of some of their rights.
(vi)Tribunals: They are not constitutional or legal courts. Membership of a tribunal in most cases are people without legal knowledge. Individual rights for a fair hearing are always denied them.
Direct Democracy: Direct democracy refers to an idea of government by which all citizens meet together, periodically to discuss issue affecting the community. This simple system is possible in tribes or village. Direct Democracy is suitable for small only . Direct democracy is seen as a close interaction in which people can continually take an active part.
Representative Democracy: This is the form of government where people run the government or exercise political power through their elected representative. This form of democracy has replaced direct democracy in modern states because it is no longer convenient for everybody to gather in one place in order to take decision.
(Choose Any Three)
(i) Free choice of leaders: It gives the electorate the opportunity to elect leaders of their choice.
(ii)Stability: Democracy promote stability in the country. A bad government can be removed from office peacefully through the process of voting.
(iii)Equality of individual: There is individual equality,freedom and protection of their possessions and their right where democracy operates.
(iv)Participation in government affairs: The individual is lifted above the narrow circle of his ego and his interest are also broadened. It makes him interested in his country and this gives him a sense of responsibility.
(v)Decision making : Decision is reached through discussion,argument and persuasion . Democracy does not believe in suppression of opinion.
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