i)it has few social amenities
ii)it is a feature of rural
iii)they are only motivate in
primary activities like farming
lumbering fisht etc
Erosion is the process of eroding or
being eroded by wind, water, or other
natural agents. While Mass movement
is the movement of surface material
caused by gravity.
-rainwater acts as a lubricant to weathered
-lack of vegetation cover to hold the
-joints dipping downslope usually assists
landslides, rockfalls, rockslide, rock creep.
i)Rarely has fossils
ii)React with acid
iii)have alternate bands of light and
i)formed through the action of heat and
ii)formed from clay
iii)formed from limestone
i)rocks are source of minerals eg
ii)rocks are source of materials for
iii)rocks serves as raw materials for
industry eg cement industry
i)A regular qualitative and quantitative
monitoring of fresh water resources.
ii)Construct proper sanitary landfill
iii)Investigate ground water quality.
iv)Provide government help for waste
management by industries.
v)Throw refuse into garbage cans. Visitors
who throw garbage into pools, lakes, ponds,
and even along the beaches pollute
recreational sites on a daily basis.
6a)Soil can be defined as the organic and
inorganic materials on the surface of the
earth that provide the medium for plant
6bii Clay soils with 25-40% clay
These soils have a good ability to transport
capillary action from deep layers but the
rate is slow, so plant water requirements
are not met through capillary water.
2 These soils are darker in colour and soil
aggregation is more distinct.
a) *Causes of Desert Encroachment*
1. Human activities: such activities such as
over-grazing, over-cultivation, bush
burning, and excessive cutting of firewood
greatly reduce the vegetative cover and
expose the land to drought and
desertification. Examples of areas with
desert encroachment are the Sahelian
zones of Nest Africa, Ethiopia, Somalia and
2. Change in Weather: The frequent and
prolonged dry weather increases the
aridity of affected areas.
3. The southward movement of the dry
sub-tropical high pressure belt results in
severe drought in semi-arid regions.
b) *Effects of Desert Encroachment*
1. Large scale disruption of socio-economic
life arising from crop failure and shortage
of water and pasture for livestock.
2. Widespread malnutrition and diseases
such as kwashiokor and marasmus.
3. Migration of people from drought areas
to more humid areas.
4. Large refugee population, that are made
up of victims of drought and social
insecurity in the semi-arid areas.
5. Disruption of ecological balance and loss
of vegetation, soil and water resources.
c) *Preventive Measures of Desert
1. Conservation of existing vegetation
through legislation against indiscriminate
exploitation and felling of forests and
2. Legislation and strong control against
3. Improved grazing practices.
4. Establishment of shelter belts to protect
the soil and arrest the effect of
5. Afforestation programs.
6. Integrated rural development.
Factors that affect Mass Movement
It is very clear, that mass movement or
mass wasting is movement of weathered
material with the aid of gravity, there are
many factors that affect this movement. I
shall tell you about 6 main factors as
follows br /> 1. Where permeable rocks alternate with
impermeable rocks, the permeable rocks
are more more prone to mass wasting than
the impermeable rocks.
2. Mass movement is pronounced in areas
with steep slopes where the weathered
layer is deep and the weathered materials
are loose. Naturally, the rate of movement
of weathered materials is faster on steep
slopes than on gentle slopes.
3. Mass movement is encouraged if there
are earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
4. Areas with a high annual range of
temperature and a high frequency of
freezing and thawing will encourage soil
creep while areas with a high temperature
and occasional torrential rainfall encourage
5. Mass movement is also encouraged if
there is no vegetation.
6. The activities of man like mining and
herding of animals encourage the
production of mass movement or mass
wasting. This are the factors that affect
Mass movement or wasting.
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