Optimum population refers to the size of a population that produces the best results according to chosen end targets.
Overpopulation is an undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity of Earth.
Under population is a situation where the population is too small relative to the available resources.
migration is the movement of people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily at a new location.
(i)High demand in industry.
(ii)Increased Human Resources
(i)Overpopulation means lack of job opportunities, poverty, no education, hunger
(ii)It causes over use of natural resources
Speed of Inland water transport is
very slow and therefore this mode of
transport is unsuitable where time is
an important factor.
2. Limited Area of Operation:
It can be used only in a limited area
which is served by deep canals and
3. Seasonal Character:
Rivers and canals cannot be operated
for transportation throughout the
year as water may freeze during
winter or water level may go very
much down during summer.
The inland water transport by rivers
is unreliable. Sometimes the river
changes its course which causes
dislocation in the normal route of the
5. Unsuitable for Small Business:
Inland water transport by rivers and
canals is not suitable for small
traders, as it takes normally a longer
time to carry goods from one place to
another through this form of
4ai. Location: This basin is found in Cross River, Akwa Ibom and parts of Abia states.
4aii. Resources: Important resources include crops like yams, cassava, rice, oil palm, rubber, timber, fish, limestone and petroleum.
4iii. Economic activities: The main economic activities therefore include:-
– Farming which leads to production of food and cash crops like rubber, oil palm, etc
– Fishing due to presence of rivers and ocean.
– Lumbering due to presence of economic trees (timber).
– Mining due to presence of limestone and petroleum
4iv Problems of development
– Transport is very poor owing to presence of many rivers and swamps.
– Soil erosion due to heavy rainfall.
– Water and land pollution due to mining of petroleum.
– Problems of farming and fishing created by oil spillage.
(i)groundnut – kano
(ii) palm produce – edo
(iii)cocoa – Lagos
(i)lack of effective communication network
(ii)lack of tenure system
(iii) poor road
(iv)lack of modern implement
(v)lack of capital
1. Promotion of Cooperation and development
This is an important objective for the countries who are in the ECOWAS system. The development is not limited by the economic abilities of the region. It also includes social contacts between the representatives of various nations, religious groups, etc. They cooperate to foster development in these states.
The cooperation also includes special offers for the members of the community. The fifteen African countries share business strategies and technologies to boost their economies. They also compete with each other to get the best results. This can foster the diplomatic and economic relations between the countries.
2. Harmonization of Agricultural, Economic, Monetary and Industrial Policies
One of the objectives of ECOWAS is to create a united policy which can satisfy the unique needs of every country member. It eliminates misunderstanding between country-members. At the same time, it provides the general requirements and standards for policies in Industrial, Monetary, Economic and Agricultural areas.
3. Abolition of trade restrictions and Customs Duties
One of the greatest objectives for ECOWAS is to destroy boundaries to assist in the development of the countries within the zone. It creates additional protection for goods which are created within this zone. That way, manufacturers are more protected and have better opportunities to sell these products. Customers can also benefit from this option as the price of goods becomes cheaper.
4. Establishment of Common Fund
This is another great opportunity offered by ECOWAS! A common fund provides better security options for countries within the union. It also helps facilitate the cooperation between the countries. In addition, it serves as a security measure or compensation to help any of the countries that needs assistance.
The Common Fund is another great option for the development of all countries within the union.
(i) Development of common market: The establishment of ECOWAS has led to the development of common market for goods produced within the sub-region
(ii) Development of international communication: It has also help ensured the development of international communication among member – state eg roads and telecommunication network.
(iii) Promotion of sports: ECOWAS has also helped to link members within the sub-region in the promotion of sports eg WAFU competitions.
(iv) Free movement of people: It had also promoted the free movement of people,thereby abolishing the use of visa
(v) Education interaction: The free movement oof people has also led to educational interaction within the sub-region
(vi) Cultural integration: It has also led to cultural integration through free movement of people.
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