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Yoko: She was a leader of the Mende people in Sierra Leone. Combining advantageous lineage, shrewd marriage choices and the power afforded her from the secret Sande Society, Yoko became a leader of considerable influence. She expanded the Mende. Kingdom and at the time of her death, she was the ruler of the vast Kpa Mende Confederacy. She changed her name to Yoko at her Sande initiation ceremony, during which time she became known for her graceful dancing. Yoko’s first marriage, which was unsuccessful, was to a man named gongioma leaving Gongoima, Yoko’s second husband was Gbenjei, Chief ofT mama Yoko reinajned childless, Gbenjei made her his great wife with prominent attention, giving her power within her household. Following Gbenjei’s death, Yoko married Gbanya Lango. In 1875, Gbanya was detained by Colonial Officials in Taiamawaro. Yoko went directly to Governor Roweto appeal for her husband’s release. Rowe was impressed with Yoko’s appeal and Gbanya was flogged, and then released. following this incident, Gbanya made Yoko his great wife and began sending her on diplomatic missions, With the Sande, Yoko was able to wield significant power not only amongst women but also over Mende society as a whole. As a leader in this women’s secret society, she made political alliances and took younger initiates as “wards” later marrying them into other aristocratic lineages in an imitation of the trajectory of her own rise to power, In1878, following her third husband’s death, Yoko became the chief of Senehun. By 1884, she was officially recogniscd as “Queen of Senehun”. This recognition came not only from her own people, but also from the British. She died in 1906, rumoured to have committed suicide. Lamboi her brother succeeded her because she had no descendants of her own.
Adah’s story begins when she is about eight years old, when she develops a dream to go to the United Kingdom. (Though she does not know her exact age, she does know that she “fe[els] eight” and was born during World War II.) As a Nigerian girl, however, she must overcome limitations placed upon her gender. She fights to be sent to school, as education is seen as unnecessary for girls. Adah takes it upon herself to go to school one day; thereafter, she is allowed to attend school with her younger brother, Boy, at an expensive private institution. In other words She is permitted to continue to pursue an education so that her family can charge a higher “bride-price.” Adah wins a scholarship for high school that includes room and board, so she moves out of her uncle’s house. Soon, though she wishes to continue studying. She decides she will have to marry. Her mother and others in the community have been encouraging Adah to consider suitors for some time already, but Adah did not want to marry a much older man. She ultimately marries Francis Obi, a young man who is studying accounting and cannot afford her bride-price. Adah lives with Francis and his parents, with whom she gets along well. She starts a good job at the American Consulate but is dismayed to discover that she will be the only one working to support the family. She quickly becomes pregnant with her first two children: a daughter, Titi, and a son, Vicky. While Adah is pregnant for the second time, a plan is conceived for Francis to study in England; Adah has shared her dream with Francis and he finally agrees that they can pursue it.
As her name suggests, Mary Rambo is both Mary, the saintly mother of Jesus, and Aunt Jemima, the female version of Sambo. Mary is a strong black woman who has learned to survive the violence and corruption of the city by relying on her inner resources. A Southern woman who now lives in the North, Mary provides the narrator’s only source of love and comfort. After his harrowing experience at the Liberty Paint Factory Hospital, the narrator is grateful for Mary’s kindness and generosity. Seeing him simply as a fellow human being who needs help, Mary takes him into her home, cooks for him, and nurses him back to health. When he can’t pay his rent, she tells him not to worry. Seeing how depressed he is about his situation, Mary encourages him and reassures him that he will make something of himself and be “a credit to his race.” She does everything she can to demonstrate her faith in him and, in effect, adopts him as her surrogate son. During this time, the narrator sees Mary as the saintly mother figure, referring to her as his anchor and guide, and appreciating her support and generosity. But after he meets Brother Jack and begins to work for the Brotherhood, he sees Mary through different eyes. She becomes a source of shame and embarrassment for him, prompting him to try to shatter her image, as symbolized by his futile attempt to discard the cast-iron bank. The bank, like Mary, represents a part of his heritage he wants to forget. Although he initially appreciates her cooking, he now complains of his steady diet of cabbage. At first he sees her home as a sanctuary and source of solace and comfort, but later he notices the noise, poverty, and filth surrounding her, as indicated by the banging on the pipes, the smell of cabbage, and the invasion of roaches. He finally leaves Mary without even saying goodbye, confident that she will survive, having undoubtedly gone through similar experiences with other black men. Mary is a survivor who represents the courage and dignity of the black woman.
Jimmy Porter feels the sense of alienated from the Establishment, the upper-crust of British society, which has shut him out of the most lucrative jobs because of his class. He graduated from a “white-tile” university, one of the newer and least prestigious universities in Great Britain, so his education, as good as it ended up being, doesn’t mean much to the British Establishment. He also feels alienated from his wife, Alison, whose father is a colonel and whose brother is now a member of Parliament. He regularly berates Alison, characterizing himself as the only thinking person in the household. He has even given her a nickname: Lady Pusillanimous. This nickname emphasizes both Jimmy’s intelligence (via his vocabulary) and Alison’s timid nature. It also suggests that at least part of Jimmy’s alienation stems from his behavior, not his socioeconomic status, and that he might have an easier time connecting with people if he treated them with respect. In other words Jimmy Porter spoke for a large segment of the British population in 1956 when he ranted about his alienation from a society in which he was denied any meaningful role. He wants to force her to feel and to have vital life. He calls her “Lady Pusillanimous” because he sees her as too cowardly to commit to anything Jimmy is anxious to give a great deal and is deeply angry because no one seems interested enough to take from him, including his wife. He says, “My heart is so full, I feel ill and she wants peace!”
“Rage” is personified throughout the poem. It is possible that the poet does this deliberately to underline this fact:
Rage is the “chief” architect of man’s troubles on this earth. And, by extension, negative emotions constitute a powerful force in our lives.
This is why they must be avoided at all cost before they destroy us.
Rage, anger or hatred only serve to deprive the individual of the things he most desires. Rage is like a raider. It will steal the laughter, the, peace and calmness, sweetness and, indeed, all light from you if you allow it a place in your heart and mind
In other words, rage is the thief or “raider” always lurking around the corner to rob us of our dreams for a life of contentment.
Like corrosive acid, rage is toxic. It eats away the treasures of happiness that all humans work so hard to achieve.
In effect, all human suffering can be attributed to man’s inability to rid himself of dark emotions like anger, jealousy and hatred and to replace them with love.
Rage brings nothing other than trouble.
A poem tone is expressed through the attitude of emotional state of the speakers, ‘Do not go gentle into that good night’ has an unusual tone of defiant towards death rather than accepting or resigned. This explains the strong emotions that run through the poem. The poetic persona urges the listeners to rage, rage against the dying of the light. Rage is repeated for emphasis. It is also used to add taste of urgency to his request. He is desperately trying to appeal or provoke his listeners into finding the strength and audacity that he needs to stand up to death. He also affirms that old age should rave and burn only at the close of the day. The repetition rate of rage in the poem suggests desperation in the tone of the poet; in additional are anger and defiance. In the poem, the poetic persona portrays his attitude of defying death and encourages his listeners to do same. The poetic persona is angry at the despondence death brings and he believes strongly that the only way to counter the feeling of death is to defy it.
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