(i) High annual rainfall: Rainfall in tropical rainforests can exceed 250cm annually.
(ii) Dense vegetation: The forest floor in a tropical rainforest is usually covered with a thick layer of vegetation, which makes movement difficult.
(iii) High biodiversity: Tropical rainforests are home to a wide range of plant and animal species.
(iv) Warm and humid climate: Temperature and humidity levels are relatively high in tropical rainforests, with average temperatures of 25°C.
(i)Timber production: Rainforests are valuable sources of hardwood timber, which is used for construction, furniture making, and other purposes.
(ii) Medicinal plants: Many plants in tropical rainforests have medicinal properties and are used to treat various ailments.
(iii) Ecotourism: Rainforests attract tourists from all over the world, who come to see the unique plants and animals found in this habitat.
(iv) Petroleum: Many of Nigeria’s oil reserves are found in rainforest areas.
(v) Carbon sequestration: The trees in rainforests absorb
(i) Cultural and Recreational Significance: Rivers hold cultural and recreational value in Nigeria. They are often considered sacred or significant in local traditions and folklore. Additionally, rivers provide opportunities for recreational activities such as fishing, boating, and water sports, attracting tourists and promoting local economies.
(ii) Transportation and Trade: Rivers serve as important transportation routes for both goods and people. Nigerian rivers facilitate inland navigation, connecting various regions and enabling the movement of goods, such as agricultural produce, minerals, and manufactured products. The Niger River, for instance, has been a vital trade route for centuries
(iii) Irrigation and Agriculture: Nigerian rivers play a crucial role in supporting agricultural activities. They provide water for irrigation, allowing farmers to cultivate crops even during dry seasons. River systems like the Sokoto-Rima and the Hadejia-Jama’are have been instrumental in supporting agricultural practices in northern Nigeria.
(i) Fishing and Aquaculture: Rivers in Nigeria support vibrant fishing and aquaculture industries. They provide habitats for a diverse range of fish species, contributing to the country’s fish production
(ii) Agriculture and Irrigation: Rivers are crucial for agriculture, providing water for irrigation. Nigerian farmers rely on rivers to irrigate their fields, enabling the cultivation of crops even during dry seasons
(iii) Transportation: Rivers serve as natural transportation routes, facilitating the movement of goods and people. In Nigeria, rivers like the Niger, the Benue, and the Cross River are utilized for inland navigation, allowing for the transport of goods, including agricultural produce, minerals, and manufactured products
(iv) Hydropower Generation: Nigerian rivers have great potential for hydropower generation. Hydroelectric power plants harness the energy of flowing water to generate electricity. Rivers such as the Niger, the Benue, and the Ogun have been tapped for hydropower, contributing to Nigeria’s electricity generation capacity and reducing reliance on fossil fuels.
Internal trade refers to the buying and selling of goods and services within the geographical boundaries of a country. It involves the exchange of goods and services between different regions, states or cities within the country.
(i) Poor infrastructure: Nigeria’s poor road network, insufficient transport systems, and inadequate storage facilities make it difficult to move goods from one location to another, resulting in delays, high transportation costs, and damage to goods.
(ii) Regulatory challenges: The lack of a transparent and consistent regulatory framework for internal trade in Nigeria has led to a proliferation of informal markets and smuggling. This results in unfair competition for formal businesses, loss of government revenue, and reduced consumer protection.
(iii) Multiple taxation: The multiplicity of taxes imposed on traders, including local government levies, state taxes, and federal duties, makes trading in Nigeria very expensive, reducing profitability for traders.
(iv) Inadequate access to credit: Many traders in Nigeria do not have access to affordable credit, making it difficult for them to expand their businesses, meet their financial obligations, and access new markets.
(v) Corruption: Bribery and extortion of traders by government officials, security forces, and market leaders have been a persistent problem in Nigeria, discouraging many from engaging in formal internal trade.
(vi) Insecurity: Insurgency, banditry, and other forms of violence in different parts of Nigeria have adversely affected internal trade, discouraging traders from entering certain regions, causing loss of life and property, and disrupting supply chains.
(i) Economic growth: Internal trade drives economic growth by promoting the exchange of goods and services between regions, stimulating competition, encouraging innovation, and creating jobs.
(ii) Poverty reduction: Internal trade provides income and employment opportunities for many Nigerians, particularly those in the informal sector, helping to reduce poverty in the country.
(iii) Regional integration: Internal trade promotes regional integration by encouraging the exchange of goods and services between different regions, enhancing economic cooperation and social cohesion.
(iv) Enhanced food security: Internal trade promotes access to food in different regions, ensuring that people have enough food to eat, no matter where they live. This is particularly important in times of food shortages or when certain foods are unavailable in a particular region.