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COMPLETE AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE SOLVED BY MASTER SOLUTION
I) unpredictable climate
1. Droughts or prolong periods without rain results in poor yields
2. Flooding results in erosion
3. Inadequate sunshine also reduces photosynthetic ability of plants
ii) inadequate rural infrastructure
1. This results in urban drift ie massive exodus to big cities for better standard of living.
2. Results to massive reduction in agricultural work force in rural settings
3. Results in low agricultural production
1. Result in increase in agricultural cost of production
2. Reduce the quality of farm produce
3. Reduce farmers income
1. High salt problems or salinity of soil which prevents proper growth of crops
2. Transmissions of diseases is possible
3. There is a build up and spread of pests
4. Pollution of the environment is possible
5. There is high cost of equipment
6. Vectors of diseases breed freely
Most farmers are poor and cannot to bug machines such as tractors, plough,ridges, harrows,harvester.
Technical know-how; most famers jack the required Knowledge and skills to operate sophisticated machines.
Small farm holdings; it is not economical for small scale farmers since it is very expensive to operate.
2b) Piercing and sucking crop pests;
These pests (mostly insects) have mouth parts that are modified and adapted for piercing and sucking plant tissues examples of them are aphid, moths,cotton ,stainer,cocoa thrip e.t.c
ii) Biting and chewing crop pests; These are mostly vertebrate and invertebrates pests that posses strong mouth parts for adapted to their mode of feeding examples are grasshoppers, crickets, termites, e.t.c
iii) Boring crop pests; These are insect pests whose mouth parts are adapted for boring holes and destroying tissues of seeds sem and fruits examples are weevils, stem borers and fruit fly and beetles
i)Long lactation periods
ii)Immunity and resistence from diseases
i)It can perform more tedious jobs than man.
ii)It can handle many farm operations.
iii)It can be controlled or easy to operate.
iv)They are much stronger than man
3b) Symptoms of Bacterial blight of cottons
i)Angular Spots on leaves
i) Death of shoots and rotting bolls
Control measure of Bacterial blight of cottons
i) Remove and burn infected plants
ii) Grow resistant varieties
Symptoms of Cassava Mosaic
i) Distortion of leaves
ii) Leaf curl
Control measures of Cassava Mosaic
i) Spray with insecticides
ii) Uproot and burn infected plants
iv)Water or Humidity
v)Soil or water chemistry
i)green plants make use of the food they manufacture to produce seed and fruits
ii)dead an decayed plants and animals provide food for the saprophytic organismm
iii)seed produced by plants is used to reproduce another plant
iv)animals make use of the carbonhydrate food produced by plants to get energy and fruit used as food
v)animals and plant produce carbonhydrate(Co2) during respiration to enrich the atmostphere with Co2
5aii) -Beak/Mouth: The Beak/Mouth contains glands that secrete saliva, which wets the feed to make it easier to swallow. Also, the saliva contains enzymes, such as amylase, that start the digestion process.
-Esophagus: The esophagus is a flexible tube that connects the mouth with the rest of the digestive tract. It carries food from the mouth to the crop and from the crop to the proventriculus.
-Crop: The crop is an out-pocketing of the esophagus and is located just outside the body cavity in the neck region. Swallowed feed and water are stored in the crop until they are p
-Proventriculus: The esophagus continues past the crop, connecting the crop to the proventriculus. The proventriculus (also known as the true stomach) is the glandular stomach where digestion primarily begins.
-Small Intestine:The small intestine is made up of the duodenum (also referred to as the duodenal loop) and the lower small intestine. The remainder of the digestion occurs in the duodenum, and the released nutrients are absorbed mainly in the lower small intestine
5b)- Lack of proper education of farmers
-Poverty does not allow people to join insurance
-The difficulty of paying farmers when they are due
-Inattractiveness of insurance in west África
-They seem to benefit only their stakeholders and not farmers
5c) -They are very expensive to operate
-They are only availiable to farmers who are Wealthy enough to own television and radio sets
-Farmers may find it difficult to ask questions on matters which they do not understand
-They are only useful to educated farmers;illiterate farmers can never benefit
Q6a. 1. Centro 2. Mucana 3. Stylo 4. Sun hemp
Purchases and expenses (le)
Opening valuation- 15,000.00
Cost of agrochemicals- 3,800.00
Hiring of labour- 9,000.00
Transportation – 1,500.00
Cost of processing farm produce – 2,500.00
Miscellaneous – 2,000.00
Net profit- 40,200.00
Grand total – 74,000.00
Sales and receipts (le)
Closing valuation – 15,000.00
Sales of crops – 57,700.00
Crops consumed – 1,300.00
Total – 74,000.00
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